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JAR Private Pilot's Licence (Aeroplanes)

Licence is issued for 5 years
Only valid for use if the Type/Class Rating and Medical Certificate are valid
The minimum age to hold a PPL (A) is 17 years old
Minimum dual flight instruction of 25 hours to include 2 hours stall awareness and spin avoidance training
Minimum solo flight of 10 hours to include 5 hours of cross-country flight and to include 1 cross-country flight of 150 nm in the course of which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made
Minimum total course flying of 45 hours
1. 5 hours of the 45 hours may have been completed in a Flight Navigation Procedures Trainer (FNPT) or Flight Simulator
2. Minimum age for solo flight is 16 years old and you must hold a valid Class 1 or 2 Medical Certificate
Flight Exercises
Exercise Number  Exercise Title
Familiarisation with the aeroplane
1E  Emergency drills 
Preparation for, and action after flight
Air experience
4 Effects of controls
5 Taxiing
5E Emergencies
6 Straight and level
9 Turning
10A Slow flight
10B Stalling
11 Spin avoidance
12 Take-off and climb to downwind position
13  The circuit, approach and landing 
12/13E Emergencies on take-off and landing  
14  First solo 
15 Advanced turning
16 Forced landing without power
17 Precautionary landing
18A Navigation
18B Navigation at lower levels
18C Radio navigation
19  Basic instrument flying 
Ground Examinations
Pass ground examinations in the following subjects within a period of 18 months:-
  • Air Law and Operational Procedures Aeroplanes

  • Meteorology

  • Flight Performance and Planning

  • Human Performance and Limitations

  • Aircraft General and Principles of Flight

  • Navigation and Radio Navigation

  • Communications - PPL

Pass mark is 75%. Once all subjects are passed they remain valid for a period of 24 months from the date of the successful completion of the examinations

If the candidate fails to pass an examination at the first attempt there will be a 2 week period before sitting another paper on the same subject

Should the candidate fail the examination at the second attempt there will be a 4 week period before taking a further attempt

In the event of a third failure the candidate will incur an automatic 3 month ban on sitting any examinations until further remedial study has been carried out. The candidate will be required to produce a certificate of completion of further study signed by the CFI stating that the student is ready for re-examination

The next examination will be taken at either the CAA or a regional examination centre and a booking will be required to be made through Exam Support PLD. A re-sit fee will also be payable to the CAA

It is therefore strongly recommend that a candidate prepares fully before attempting any of the examinations

For more information about how to pass the ground examinations see PPL (A) Groundschool
PPL (A) Skill Test
Before attempting the PPL Skill Test all ground examinations must be passed and all flight training must be completed
Pass a PPL Skill Test conducted by a CAA Flight Examiner (FE) within 6 months of completing the training and all sections of the PPL Skill Test must be completed within a period of 6 months
Section 1 Departure
Pre-flight including documentation, weather, mass & balance, performance calculations
Pre-start external/internal checks
Starting engine(s)
Power & Take-off checks
After take-off checks
Aerodrome departure procedures
ATC, radio procedures
Section 2 Airwork
Straight & level
Slow flight
Climbing (best rate/angle)
Medium turns (30 AOB)
Recognition and recovery from spiral dive
Steep turns (360 at 45 AOB)
Full clean stall and recovery
Approach to the stall with 10-30 AOB approach configuration/power
Approach to the stall in landing configuration
Descending (power on/power off)
ATC, radio procedures
Section 3 En-Route Procedures
Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
Orientation, timing and revision of ETAs, log keeping
Diversion to alternate aerodrome, planning and implementation
Use of radio navigation aids position fix and tracking
Basic instrument flying (180 turn in simulated IMC)
Flight management (flight log, routine checks, carb. icing, etc)
ATC, radio procedures
Section 4 Approach and Landing Procedures
Aerodrome arrival procedures
Precision (short field), crosswind (if suitable conditions exist) and flapless landing
Touch and go
Go-around from low height
ATC, radio procedures
Action after flight including documentation
Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Operation
Simulated EFATO (SE only)
Simulated forced landing (SE only)
Simulated precautionary landing (SE only)
Simulated emergencies
Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight (if applicable) And Relevant Class/Type Rating Items
This section may be combined with sections 1 through 5
Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe height)
Asymmetric approach and go-around
Asymmetric approach and full-stop landing
Engine shutdown and restart
Any relevant items of class/type including: handling of the autopilot, pressurisation system, de-icing, etc
Oral questions
ATC, radio procedures

Medical Requirements

Before commencing training for the PPL it is recommended you apply for a Class 2 medical certificate. A list of Aviation Medical Examiners (AME) can be obtained from the CAA. For more details see JAR Medicals


To act as PIC or co-pilot on non revenue flights and not for remuneration
No public transport or aerial work except:-

  • Flight Instruction if an instructors rating is held.

  • Glider Towing

  • Dropping Parachutists

Carriage of Passengers

Before carrying passengers by day or night the PIC shall have carried out:-

  • By day - 3 take-offs and landings as PIC in the same class/type of aircraft in the preceding 90 days

  • By night - 1 take-off and landing as PIC in the same class/type of aircraft in the preceding 90 days provided that a night rating is also held.

Weather Minima

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in sight of the surface 3 km visibility outside controlled airspace or 10 km visibility under Special VFR in a Control Zone (CTA)

Controlled Airspace

IFR in controlled airspace requires an Instrument Rating (IR)
IFR in class D and E controlled airspace requires an Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) Rating


The PPL (A) shall remain in force for 5 years. On the 5th anniversary or up to 3 months in advance you must apply to the CAA for a new licence. The licence need not hold a current Certificate of Test or Certificate of Experience nor must you have completed any flying hour criteria. However, a Class/Type Rating of any category must be endorsed on the licence and you must have a valid Medical Certificate